به مناسبت صدمین سالگرد ۸ مارچ
شماری از زنان برجستۀ تاریخ
1919-29 Politically Influential H.M. Queen Soraya Shah of Afghanistan
Influenced her husband, King Amanulluh Shah, who was one of the most liberal rulers of the country. He abolished slavery, liberalized the family code, child marriage was limited; women got right to choose their own husband, etc. In 1928 Soraya and her daughters appeared unveiled. Conservative forces forced her husband to abdicate in 1929, and they went into exile first in India and then in Rome. She was the daughter of Mahmud Beg Tarzi, sometime Minister for Foreign Affairs, and lived (1897-1968).
1980-85 Partner in Power Dr. Anahita Ratebzad in Afghanistan
She was ambassador to Yugoslavia 1978, Minister of Social Affairs 1978-79, Minister of Education 1980, and Member of the Presidency of the Revolutionary Council and the Politburo of the Communist Party 1980-85. She was the highest-ranking woman in the parcham faction of the party and an expert propagandist.
Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi: (19 November 1917 - October 31, 1984) was the Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms from 1966 to 1977 and for a fourth term from 1980 until her assassination in 1984. She was India's first and to date only female prime minister.
2007- President Pratibha Patil, India
Deputy Minister 1967-72 and Cabinet Minister 1972-83 and Congress Leader and Leader of the Opposition 1979-80 in Maharastra, Deputy Chairperson of the Union Upper House, the Rajya Sabha 1986-88, Governor of Rajasthan 2004-07. Married to Devisingh Shekhawat, a former Mayor of Amravati. (b. 1934-).
1988-90 and 1993-96 Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto, Pakistan
Co-Chairperson 1984-94 and Leader of Pakistan People's Party 1994-2007, in house arrest 1977-84 and in exile 1984-86. She also held the Portfolios of Defence, Atomic Energy, Finance, Economy, Information and Establishment. Both in 1990 and 1996 she was removed from office by the President on charges of corruption and later convinced. Returned to Pakistan in 2007 after 10 years in exile in United Kingdom and Dubai to contest elections in January 2008, which she was widely expected to win, but was killed by a suicide bomb in December 2007. She was daughter of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, the former President and Prime Minister, who was executed after the coup d’etat in 1979.
20.03.1991-30.03.1996 Begum Khaleda Zia, Bangladesh
Vice-Chairperson of The Nationalist Party 1982-84 and Leader since 1984. Her husband, President Zia-ur-Rahman, was Premier Minister 1976-77 and President 1977-81 until he was assassinated. Khaleda was detained seven times during nine years of autocratic rule. In the face of mass upsurge spearheaded by the seven-party alliance, led by Khaleda, and the eight-party combine, led by Hasina, Ershad resigned in 1990 and handed over power to neutral caretaker government, bringing an end to his nine-year autocratic rule. During her first tenure as Premier she was also Minister of Defence, Establishment, Cabinet Diversion and Planning, Information Energy and Resources. 1996-2001 Leader of the Opposition. Resigned in October 2006 to prepare for the elections later in the year, which was postponed because of unrests. In 2007 she was arrested by the miltary government on charges of corruption. (b. 1945- ).
1996-2001 Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina Wajed, Bangladesh
Leader of the Awami League since 1981 and Leader of the Opposition 1991-96. As Premier she was also Minister of Defence. She took over the Party-Leadership after her father, Prime Minister Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (1920-72-75), was murdered during a coup d’etat. Also her mother, 3 brothers and 2 sisters-in-laws were killed, only a sister survived. Arrested by the military government in 2007 on charges of corruption, extortion and murder. Mother of 2 sons (b. 1945- ).
1984-90 Chairperson of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Valentina Semyonovna Shevchenko, Ukraine (Autonomous Soviet Republic in the USSR)
Her name is also transcribed, as Valentina Semenovna Seveenko, and her position were equivalent to that of a Head of State though real power were vested in the 1. Secretary of the Communist Party.
2007- Sahana Pradhan, Nepal
Leader of the Communist Party 1978-87, Leader of the Marxist NKP 1987-90, Leader of the United Left Front 1990-91, President of the united Marxist party UML 1991 and now member of the Executive Committee. 1990-91 Minister of Industry and Trade, 1996-97 Minister of Forests and Soil Conservation and 1997 Minister of Women and Welfare. Widow of Pushpa Lal Shresta, leader of the Communists 1949-78, (b. 1932-).